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Josip Broz

Tito in World War II

Josip Broz Tito (serbskja kirilika: Јосип Броз Тито, 7 Mai 1892 – 4 Mai 1980) bil načalnik Socialistja Federacja Republika Jugslaviaf ot 1945 do jego smertu vo 1980. Podčas Drugja svetovja vojna, Tito organizil protifašistja protivoborba znalnja kak Narodnjo dviganie za svobodenie ktorjo bil vedit Jugoslavju partizanum. Pozdue on bil osnovitelnij člen Cominformu,[1] ili odolil Sovietskij vliv (poglediš Titoism) i stal jedin ot glavnju osnovitelum i podporitelum bezaliancovju dviganiu.

Ranjo žitieEdit

Pred pervja svetja vojna i vo vojna Edit

Josip Broz se zrodil vo Kumrovecu, vo malij oblast Hrvatsku Zagorju vo Hrvatsku. On bil sedmjo dete Franju i Mariju Brozu. Jego otec, Franjo Broz bil Hrvatnic i jego matka Marija (zrodila kak Javeršek) bila Slovaknicku. Kak dete on žil so deda (otec jego mamu) vo selu Podsreda, vo 1900 on vstupil do primarju školu (čtiri klasi) vo Kumrovecu, on bil bezuspešnij vo drugij klas i končil školu vo 1905. Vo 1907, Broz načil rabotit kak učinik stroiniku vo Sisak. Tam on bil pritomnij trudovju dviganiu i slavnil 1 Mai - Den Trudu za pervjo vreme. Vo 1910, sviazil so soiuzu metalurgje trudniki, odnakuo vreme i socialdemokratja partia Hrvatsku i Slavoniu. Meždu 1911 i 1913, Broz rabotil za kratkje periodi vo Kamniku, Cenkovo, Munich, i Mannheim, gde rabotil za Benz automobilezavodu; potom on pošel do Wiener Neustadt, i rabotil kak testovij šofer za Daimler.

Vo osenu 1913, on bil rekrutilnij do Ostreih-ungarn voisko. Bil poslatnij do školu dla podprikazniki i stal seržant. Vo Mai 1914, Broz vigral srebrnju medalu na soperenie voiskovjo fehtenie vo Budapestu. Na načenie pervja svetovja vojna vo 1914, bil poslatnij do Ruma, gde bil zaderžilij za protivojnovja propaganda i zaklučilij vo Petrovaradinij krepgrod. Vo Januaru 1915, on bil poslatnij do vostočnju frontu vo Galiciu vojnat protiv Rosia. Raspoznal se kak sposobnij voiak i bil rekomendilij za voiskovij dekor. Na Paska 25 Marc 1915, bil vo Bukovinu silnuo poranilnij i pohitilnij Ruskimi.

Zaklučnik i revolucnikEdit

Posle trinaset mesaci vo lečilnu, Broz bil poslatnij do rabotnij tabor vo Gorni Ural gde zaklučniki izberili jego dla tabornij načalnik. Vo Februaru 1917, otvratnje rabotniki svobodili vse zaklučniki. Broz vstupil do Bolševnikskja grupa. Vo Aprilu 1917,on bil zvnovu zaderžilij, ali utečil i učastil se na Julskju denum demostraciu vo Sankt Peterburgu vo 16-17 Julum 1917. Na jego put do Suomi bil poimalij i zaklučilij tri tidenum vo Petropavlovskij krepgrod. On bil vnov poslatnij do Kunguru ali otbegil ot poezdu. Ukril se so Rosiskaja rodina vo Omsku na Sibiru gde vstretil jego buvremja svadžena Pelagija Belousova.[2] Posle Oktobrja Revolucia on vstupil do edinicu Červenju Gvardiu vo Omsku. Posle Belja proti ofenziva on otbegil do Kirgiztanu i pozdjuš se vernul do Omsku gde on svadil so Belousova. Vo Vesnu 1918 vstupil do jugoslavijotdel Komunistja parta Sovietju soiuzu. Vo Junu odnakju roču otidil ot Omsku iskat rabota dla podporu svoi rodzina, i bil naemilij kak mehannik blizuo Omsku na jedin roč. Vo Januaru 1920 on i jego svadžena zudelali dolgij put domu do Jugoslavia gde priehali vo Septembru.[2]

Posle jego vernutu , Broz vstupil do Komunistja parta Jugoslaviu. Vliv komunistja parta vo politika Korolstvo Jugoslaviu bistruo rastil. Vo 1920 glosonie, komunistniki vigrali ťí kresli vo parlamentu i stali se treti najsilaja parta. Vigrali mnogost mestje glosenie, oni nabili krepmesto vo drugij naiveljo mesto vo Jugoslaviu Zagreb , electing Svetozar Delić for mayor. The King's regime, however, would not tolerate the CPY and declared it illegal. During 1920 and 1921 all Communist-won mandates were nullified. Broz continued his work underground despite pressure on Communists from the government. As 1921 began he moved to Veliko Trojstvo near Bjelovar and found work as a machinist. In 1925, Broz moved to Kraljevica where he started working at a shipyard. He was elected as a union leader and a year later he led a shipyard strike. He was fired and moved to Belgrade, where he worked in a train coach factory in Smederevska Palanka. He was elected as Workers Commissary but was fired as soon as his CPY membership was revealed. Broz then moved to Zagreb, where he was appointed secretary of Metal Workers Union of Croatia. In 1928, he became the Zagreb Branch Secretary of the CPY. In the same year he was arrested, tried in court for his illegal communist activities, and sent to jail.[3] During his five years at Lepoglava prison he met Moša Pijade who became his ideological mentor.[3] After his release, he lived incognito and assumed a number of noms de guerre, among them "Walter" and "Tito".[2]

In 1934 the Zagreb Provincial Committee sent Tito to Vienna where the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia had sought refuge. He was appointed to the Committee and started to appoint allies to him, among them Edvard Kardelj, Milovan Djilas, Aleksander Rankovic, and Boris Kidric. In 1935, Tito traveled to the Soviet Union, working for a year in the Balkan section of Comintern. He was a member of the Soviet Communist Party and the Soviet secret police (NKVD). In 1936, the Comintern sent "Comrade Walter" (i.e. Tito) back to Yugoslavia to purge the Communist Party there. In 1937, Stalin had the Secretary-General of the CPY, Milan Gorkić, murdered in Moscow. Subsequently Tito was appointed Secretary-General of the still-outlawed CPY.

World War II leaderEdit

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Aftermath of World War IIEdit

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On 7 March 1945, the provisional government of the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia (Demokratska Federativna Jugoslavija, DFY) was assembled in Belgrade by Josip Broz Tito, while the provisional name allowed for either a republic or monarchy. This government was headed by Tito as provisional Yugoslav Prime Minister and included representatives from the royalist government-in-exile, among others Ivan Šubašić. In accordance with the agreement between resistance leaders and the government-in-exile, post-war elections were held to determine the form of government. In November 1945, Tito's pro-republican People's Front, led by the Communist Party of Yugoslavia, won the elections with an overwhelming majority. During the period, Tito evidently enjoyed massive popular support due to being generally viewed by the populace as the liberator of Yugoslavia. The Yugoslav administration in the immediate post-war period managed to unite a country that had been severely affected by ultra-nationalist upheavals and war devastation, while successfully suppressing the nationalist sentiments of the various nations in favor of tolerance, and the common Yugoslav goal. After the overwhelming electoral victory, Tito was confirmed as the Prime Minister and the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the DFY. The country was soon renamed the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia (FPRY) (later finally renamed into Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, SFRY). On 29 November 1945, King Peter II was formally deposed by the Yugoslav Constituent Assembly. The Assembly drafted a new republican constitution soon afterwards.

Yugoslavia organized an army from the Partisan movement, the Yugoslav People's Army (Jugoslavenska narodna armija, or JNA) which was, for a period, considered the fourth strongest in Europe. The State Security Administration (Uprava državne bezbednosti/sigurnosti/varnosti, UDBA) was also formed as the new secret police, along with a security agency, the Department of People's Security (Organ Zaštite Naroda (Armije), OZNA). Yugoslav intelligence was charged with imprisoning and bringing to trial large numbers of Nazi collaborators; controversially, this included Catholic clergymen due to the widespread involvement of Croatian Catholic clergy with the Ustaša regime. Draža Mihailović was found guilty of collaboration, high treason and war crimes and was subsequently executed by firing squad in July 1946.

Prime Minister Josip Broz Tito met with the president of the Bishops' Conference of Yugoslavia, Aloysius Stepinac on June 4, 1945, two days after his release from imprisonment. The two could not reach an agreement on the state of the Catholic Church. Under Stepinac's leadership, the bishops' conference released a letter condemning alleged Partisan war crimes in September, 1945. The following year Stepinac was arrested and put on trial. In October 1946, in its first special session for 75 years, the Vatican excommunicated Tito and the Yugoslav government for sentencing Stepinac to 16 years in prison on charges of assisting Ustaše terror and of supporting forced conversions of Serbs to Catholicism.[4] Stepinac received preferential treatment in recognition of his status[5] and the sentence was soon shortened and reduced to house-imprisonment, with the option of emigration open to the archbishop. At the conclusion of the "Informbiro period", reforms rendered Yugoslavia considerably more religiously liberal than the Eastern Bloc states.

In the first post war years Tito was widely considered a communist leader very loyal to Moscow, indeed, he was often viewed as second only to Stalin in the Eastern Bloc. Yugoslav forces shot down American aircraft flying over Yugoslav territory, and relations with the West were strained. In fact, Stalin and Tito had an uneasy alliance from the start, with Stalin considering Tito too independent.

Yugoslav PresidentEdit

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Tito-Stalin splitEdit

Main article: Tito-Stalin split

Unlike the other new communist states in east-central Europe, Yugoslavia liberated itself from Axis domination, without any direct support from the Red Army as the others. Tito's leading role in liberating Yugoslavia not only greatly strengthened his position in his party and among the Yugoslav people, but also caused him to be more insistent that Yugoslavia had more room to follow its own interests than other Bloc leaders who had more reasons (and pressures) to recognize Soviet efforts in helping them liberate their own countries from Axis control. This had already led to some friction between the two countries before World War II was even over. Although Tito was formally an ally of Stalin after World War II, the Soviets had set up a spy ring in the Yugoslav party as early as 1945, giving way to an uneasy alliance.

In the immediate aftermath of World War II, there occurred several armed incidents between Yugoslavia and the Western Allies. Following the war, Yugoslavia recovered the territory of Istria, as well as the cities of Zadar and Rijeka that had been taken by Italy in the 1920s. Yugoslav leadership was looking to incorporate Trieste into the country as well, which was opposed by the Western Allies. This led to several armed incidents, notably air attacks of Yugoslav fighter planes on U.S. transport aircraft, causing bitter criticism from the west. From 1945 to 1948, at least four US aircraft were shot down.[6] Stalin was opposed to these provocations, as he felt the USSR unready to face the West in open war so soon after the losses of World War II. In addition, Tito was openly supportive of the Communist side in the Greek Civil War, while Stalin kept his distance, having agreed with Churchill not to pursue Soviet interests there. In 1948, motivated by the desire to create a strong independent economy, Tito modeled his economic development plan independently from Moscow, which resulted in a diplomatic escalation followed by a bitter exchange of letters in which Tito affirmed that Template:Quote The Soviet answer on May 4 admonished Tito and the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (CPY) for failing to admit and correct its mistakes, and went on to accuse them of being too proud of their successes against the Germans, maintaining that the Red Army had saved them from destruction. Tito's response on May 17 suggested that the matter be settled at the meeting of the Cominform to be held that June. However, Tito did not attend the second meeting of the Cominform, fearing that Yugoslavia was to be openly attacked. At this point the crisis nearly escalated into an armed conflict, as Hungarian and Soviet forces were massing on the northern Yugoslav frontier.[7] On June 28, the other member countries expelled Yugoslavia, citing "nationalist elements" that had "managed in the course of the past five or six months to reach a dominant position in the leadership" of the CPY. The expulsion effectively banished Yugoslavia from the international association of socialist states, while other socialist states of Eastern Europe subsequently underwent purges of alleged "Titoists". Stalin took the matter personally – for once, and attempted, unsuccessfully, to assassinate Tito on several occasions. In a correspondence between the two leaders, Tito openly wrote: Template:Quote However, Tito used the estrangement from the USSR to attain US aid via the Marshall Plan, as well as to involve Yugoslavia in the Non-Aligned Movement, in which he assured a leading position for Yugoslavia. The event was significant not only for Yugoslavia and Tito, but also for the global development of socialism, since it was the first major split between Communist states, casting doubt on Comintern's claims for socialism to be a unified force that would eventually control the whole world, as Tito became the first (and the only successful) socialist leader to defy Stalin's leadership in the COMINFORM. This rift with the Soviet Union brought Tito much international recognition, but also triggered a period of instability often referred to as the Informbiro period. Tito's form of communism was labeled "Titoism" by Moscow, which encouraged purges against suspected "Titoites'" throughout the Eastern bloc.

As a result of the split with the USSR the Yugoslavian government established a prison camp on the Croatian island of Goli Otok for suspected pro-Soviet enemies of Tito and the CPY regime. In 1949, the entire island was officially made into a high-security, top secret prison and labor camp. Until 1956, throughout the Informbiro period, it was used to incarcerate political prisoners. They included known and alleged Stalinists, but also other Communist Party members or even regular citizens accused of exhibiting any sort of sympathy or leanings towards the Soviet Union. Some 10,000 people went through the camp. There are many witness accounts of brutality by prison guards, officers and staff.

On 26 June 1950, the National Assembly supported a crucial bill written by Milovan Đilas and Tito about "self-management" (samoupravljanje): a type of independent socialism that experimented with profit sharing with workers in state-run enterprises. On 13 January 1953, they established that the law on self-management was the basis of the entire social order in Yugoslavia. Tito also succeeded Ivan Ribar as the President of Yugoslavia on 14 January 1953. After Stalin's death Tito rejected the USSR's invitation for a visit to discuss normalization of relations between two nations. Nikita Khrushchev and Nikolai Bulganin visited Tito in Belgrade in 1955 and apologized for wrongdoings by Stalin's administration.[8] Tito visited the USSR in 1956, which signaled to the world that animosity between Yugoslavia and USSR was easing.[9] However, the relationship between the USSR and Yugoslavia would reach another low in the late 1960s. Commenting on the crisis, Tito concluded that: Template:Quote

Non-aligned YugoslaviaEdit

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Under Tito's leadership, Yugoslavia became a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement. In 1961, Tito co-founded the movement with Egypt's Gamal Abdel Nasser, India's Jawaharlal Nehru, Indonesia's Sukarno and Ghana's Kwame Nkrumah, in an action called The Initiative of Five (Tito, Nehru, Nasser, Sukarno, Nkrumah), thus establishing strong ties with third world countries. This move did much to improve Yugoslavia's diplomatic position.

On 7 April 1963, the country changed its official name to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Reforms encouraged private enterprise and greatly relaxed restrictions on freedom of speech and religious expression.[10] In 1966 an agreement with the Vatican, spawned by the death of Stepinac in 1960 and the decisions of the Second Vatican Council, was signed according new freedom to the Yugoslav Roman Catholic Church, particularly to teach the catechism and open seminaries. The agreement also eased tensions, which had prevented the naming of new bishops in Yugoslavia since 1945. Tito's new socialism met opposition from traditional communists culminating in conspiracy headed by Aleksandar Ranković.[11] In the same year Tito declared that Communists must henceforth chart Yugoslavia's course by the force of their arguments (implying a granting of freedom of discussion and an abandonment of dictatorship). The state security agency (UDBA) saw its power scaled back and its staff reduced to 5000.

On 1 January 1967, Yugoslavia was the first communist country to open its borders to all foreign visitors and abolish visa requirements.[12] In the same year Tito became active in promoting a peaceful resolution of the Arab-Israeli conflict. His plan called for Arabs to recognize State of Israel in exchange for territories Israel gained.[13]

In 1967, Tito offered Czechoslovak leader Alexander Dubček to fly to Prague on three hours notice if Dubček needed help in facing down the Soviets.[14]

In 1971, Tito was re-elected as President of Yugoslavia for the sixth time. In his speech in front of the Federal Assembly he introduced 20 sweeping constitutional amendments that would provide an updated framework on which the country would be based. The amendments provided for a collective presidency, a 22 member body consisting of elected representatives from six republics and two autonomous provinces. The body would have a single chairman of the presidency and chairmanship would rotate among six republics. When the Federal Assembly fails to agree on legislation, the collective presidency would have the power to rule by decree. Amendments also provided for stronger cabinet with considerable power to initiate and pursue legislature independently from the Communist Party. Džemal Bijedić was chosen as the Premier. The new amendments aimed to decentralize the country by granting greater autonomy to republics and provinces. The federal government would retain authority only over foreign affairs, defense, internal security, monetary affairs, free trade within Yugoslavia, and development loans to poorer regions. Control of education, healthcare, and housing would be exercised entirely by the governments of the republics and the autonomous provinces.[15]

Tito's greatest strength, in the eyes of the western communists, had been in suppressing nationalist insurrections and maintaining unity throughout the country. It was Tito's call for unity, and related methods, that held together the people of Yugoslavia. This ability was put to a test several times during his reign, notably during the so-called Croatian Spring (also referred to as masovni pokret, maspok, meaning "mass movement") when the government had to suppress both public demonstrations and dissenting opinions within the Communist Party. During the Spring, on December 22, 1971 in Rudo Broz allegedly said, "The Sava will flow upstream before the Croats get their own state".[16][17][18] Despite this suppression, much of maspok's demands were later realised with the new constitution.

On 16 May 1974, the new Constitution was passed, and Josip Broz Tito was named President for life.

Foreign policyEdit

Tito was notable for pursuing a foreign policy of neutrality during the Cold War and for establishing close ties with developing countries. Tito's strong belief in self-determination caused early rift with Stalin and consequently, the Eastern Bloc. His public speeches often reiterated that policy of neutrality and cooperation with all countries is natural as long as these countries are not using their influence to pressure Yugoslavia to take sides. Relations with the United States and Western European nations were generally cordial.

Yugoslavia had a liberal travel policy permitting foreigners to freely travel through the country and its citizens to travel worldwide.[10] This was limited by most Communist countries. A number of Yugoslav citizens worked throughout Western Europe.

Tito also developed warm relations with Burma under U Nu, traveling to the country in 1955 and again in 1959, though he didn't receive the same treatment in 1959 from the new leader, Ne Win.

Because of its neutrality, Yugoslavia would often be one of the only Communist countries to have diplomatic relations with right-wing, anti-Communist governments. For example, Yugoslavia was the only communist country allowed to have an embassy in Alfredo Stroessner's Paraguay.[19] However, one notable exception to Yugoslavia's neutral stance toward anti-communist countries was Chile under Augusto Pinochet; Yugoslavia was one of many left-wing countries which severed diplomatic relations with Chile after Allende was overthrown.[20]

Final years and aftermathEdit

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After the constitutional changes of 1974, Tito increasingly took the role of senior statesman. His direct involvement in domestic policy and governing was somewhat diminishing.

On January 7 & again on January 11, 1980, Tito was admitted to Klinični center Ljubljana (the clinical center in Ljubljana, Slovenia) with circulation problems in his legs. His left leg was amputated soon afterwards. He died there on 4 May 1980 at 3:05 pm. His funeral drew many world statesmen.[21] Based on the number of attending politicians and state delegations, at the time it was the largest statesman funeral in history.[22] They included four kings, thirty-one presidents, six princes, twenty-two prime ministers and forty-seven ministers of foreign affairs. They came from both sides of the Cold War, from 128 different countries.[23]

At the time of his death, speculation began about whether his successors could continue to hold Yugoslavia together. Ethnic divisions and conflict grew and eventually erupted in a series of Yugoslav wars a decade after his death. Tito was buried in a mausoleum in Belgrade, called Kuća Cveća (The House of Flowers) and numerous people visit the place as a shrine to "better times".

The gifts he received during his presidency are kept in the Museum of the History of Yugoslavia (whose old names were "Museum 25. May," and "Museum of the Revolution") in Belgrade. The collection includes works of many world-famous artists, including original prints of Los Caprichos by Francisco Goya, and many others.[24] The Government of Serbia has planned to merge the museum into the Museum of the History of Serbia.[25]

During his life and especially in the first year after his death, several places were named after Tito. Several of these places have since returned to their original names, such as Podgorica, formerly Titograd (though Podgorica's international airport is still identified by the code TGD), which reverted to its original name in 1992. Streets in Belgrade, the capital, have all reverted back to their original pre-World War II and pre-communist names as well. In 2004, Antun Augustinčić's statue of Broz in his birthplace of Kumrovec was decapitated in an explosion.[26] It was subsequently repaired. Twice in 2008, protests took place in Zagreb's Marshal Tito Square, with an aim to force the city government to rename it ("Krug za Trg" (eng. Circle for the Square), while a counter-protest ("Građanska inicijativa protiv ustaštva" eng. Citizens' Initiative Against Ustashizm) accused the "Circle for the Square" for historical revisionism and neo-fascism [2]. In the Croatian coastal city of Opatija the main street (also its longest street) still bears the name of Marshal Tito. Marshal Tito Street in Sarajevo is shortened but is still the main street.

Every federal unit had one town or city renamed to have Tito's name included. Following are:</br> SR Bosnia and Herzegovina : Titov Drvar (previously Drvar)</br> SR Croatia : Titova Korenica (previously Korenica)</br> SR Macedonia : Titov Veles (previously Veles)</br> SR Montenegro : Titograd (previously Podgorica)</br> SR Serbia : Titovo Uzice (previously Uzice)</br> SR Slovenija : Titovo Velenje (previously Velenje)</br> SAP Vojvodina : Titov Vrbas (previously Vrbas)</br> SAP Kosovo and Metohija : Titova Mitrovica (previously Kosovska Mitrovica)</br>

SR - Socialistic Republic</br> SAP - Socialistic Autonomous Province

Family and personal lifeEdit

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Tito carried on numerous affairs and was married several times. In 1918 he was brought to Omsk, Russia as a prisoner of war. There he met Pelagija "Polka" Belousova who was then fifteen; he married her a year later, and she moved with him to Yugoslavia. Polka bore him five children but only their son Žarko (born 1924) survived.[27] When Tito was jailed in 1928, she returned to Russia. After the divorce in 1936 she later remarried.

In 1936, when Tito stayed at the Hotel Lux in Moscow, he met the Austrian comrade Lucia Bauer. They married in October 1936, but the records of this marriage were later erased.[28]

His next notable relationship was with Hertha Haas, whom he married. In May 1941, she bore him a son, Aleksandar nicknamed Miša. All throughout his relationship with Haas, Tito maintained a promiscuous life and had a parallel relationship with Davorjanka Paunović, codename Zdenka, a courier and his personal secretary. Hertha and Tito suddenly parted company in 1943 in Jajce during the second meeting of AVNOJ after she reportedly walked in on him and Davorjanka.[29] Paunović, by most accounts, was the love of his life. She died of tuberculosis in 1946 and Tito insisted that she be buried in the backyard of the Beli Dvor, his Belgrade residence.[30]

His best known wife was Jovanka Broz (née Budisavljević). Tito was just shy of his 59th birthday, while she was 27, when they finally married in April 1952, with state security chief Aleksandar Ranković as the best man. Their eventual marriage came about somewhat unexpectedly since Tito actually rejected her some years earlier when his confidante Ivan Krajacic brought her in originally. At that time, she was in her early 20s and Tito, objecting to her energetic personality, opted for the more mature opera singer Zinka Kunc instead. Not the one to be discouraged easily, Jovanka continued working at Beli Dvor, where she managed the staff of servants and eventually got another chance after Tito's strange relationship with Zinka failed. Since Jovanka was the only female companion he married while in power, she also went down in history as Yugoslavia's first lady. Their relationship was not a happy one, however. It had gone through many, often public, ups and downs with episodes of infidelities and even allegations of preparation for a coup d'etat by the latter pair. Certain unofficial reports suggest Tito and Jovanka even formally divorced in the late 1970s, shortly before his death. However, during Tito's funeral she was officially present as Tito's wife, and later claimed rights for inheritance. The couple did not have any children.

Tito's notable grandchildren include Aleksandra Broz, a prominent theatre director in Croatia, Svetlana Broz, a cardiologist and writer in Bosnia and Josip "Joška" Broz and Eduard Broz.

Though Tito was most likely born on 7 May, he celebrated his birthday on 25 May, after he became president of Yugoslavia, to mark the occasion of an unsuccessful Nazi attempt at his life in 1944. The Germans found forged documents of Tito's, where 25 May was stated as his birthday. They attacked Tito on the day they believed was his birthday.[31]

As the leader of Yugoslavia Tito maintained a lavish lifestyle and kept several mansions. In Belgrade he resided in the official palace, Beli dvor, and maintained a separate private residence; he spent much time at his private island of Brijuni (Brioni), an official residence from 1949 on, and at his palace at the Bled lake. His grounds at Karadjordjevo were the site of "diplomatic hunts". By 1974 Tito had 32 official residences.[32]

As regards the knowledge of languages, Tito replied that he spoke Yugoslav, German, Russian and partly English.[33][34]

25 May was institutionalized as the Day of Youth (Dan Mladosti) in former Yugoslavia. The Relay of Youth started about two months earlier, each time from a different town of Yugoslavia. The baton passed through hundreds of hands of relay runners and typically visited all major cities of the country. On 25 May of each year, the baton finally passed into the hands of Marshal Tito at the end of festivities at Yugoslav People's Army Stadium (hosting FK Partizan) in Belgrade.

Origin of the name "Tito"Edit

It's not certain, but a popular explanation of the sobriquet claims that it is a conjunction of two Serbo-Croatian words, "ti" (meaning "you") and "to" (meaning "that"). As the story goes, during the frantic times of his command, he would issue commands with those two words, by pointing to the person, and then task. This explanation for the name's origin is provided in Fitzroy Maclean's 1949 book, Eastern Approaches.

Tito is also an old, though uncommon, Croatian name, corresponding to Titus. Tito's biographer, Vladimir Dedijer, claimed that it came from the Croatian romantic writer, Tituš Brezovački, but the name is very well known in Zagorje. Josip Broz in a hand written note from 1958 (the note is kept in Archive of Communist Party of Yugoslavia) confirmed that this name was very common in his region, and it was the main reason for adopting it between 1934 and 1936. Previously he used names Rudi (for domestic activities ) and Walter (for international activities). However, Rodoljub Čolaković already used name Rudi too, so Josip Broz replaced it with Tito.[35]

The newest theory is from the Croatian journalist Denis Kuljiš. He got information from a descendant of the Comintern spy Baturin, operating in Istanbul in the thirties, about a code system that was used by the latter. Josip Broz was one of his agents, and his secret nicknames were allegedly always the names of pistols. Tito himself confirmed that he used the nickname "Walter", possibly after the German Walther PPK pistol. According to Baturin, one of the last nicknames was "TT", after the Soviet TT-30 pistol, and Broz even signed a number of Communist Party documents with that name after returning to Yugoslavia. Kuljiš believes that after a few years "TT" (pronounced in Serbo-Croatian as "te te") became "Tito".Template:Fact

QuotesEdit

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On Brotherhood and Unity:

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On Bosnia and Herzegovina:

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Awards and decorationsEdit

Tito received many awards and decorations both from his own country and from other countries. Most notable of these (with defunct awards in italics) are:

Yugoslav awards and decorationsEdit

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Award or decoration Country Date Place Remarks Ref
Order of the National Hero of Yugoslavia
(Awarded three times)
Yugoslavia Yugoslavia 6 November 1944,
15 May 1972,
16 May 1977
Vis,
Belgrade, Belgrade
Only person to receive it three times. [36]
Order of the Yugoslavian Great Star Yugoslavia Yugoslavia 1 February 1954 Belgrade Highest national order of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. [36]
Order of Freedom Yugoslavia Yugoslavia 12 June 1945 Belgrade Highest military order of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. [36]
Order of the Hero of Socialist labour Yugoslavia Yugoslavia 1950 Belgrade [36]
Order of National Liberation Yugoslavia Yugoslavia 15 August 1943 Jajce [36]
Order of the War flag Yugoslavia Yugoslavia 29 December 1951 Belgrade [36]
Order of the Yugoslav Flag with Sash Yugoslavia Yugoslavia 26 November 1947 Belgrade [36]
Order of the Partisan Star with Golden Wreath Yugoslavia Yugoslavia 15 August 1943 Jajce [36]
Order of the Republic with Golden Wreath Yugoslavia Yugoslavia 2 July 1960 Belgrade [36]
Order of merits for the people with golden star Yugoslavia Yugoslavia 9 June 1945 Belgrade [36]
Order of the brotherhood and unity with golden wreath Yugoslavia Yugoslavia 15 August 1943 Jajce [36]
Order of the National Army with Laurel Wreath Yugoslavia Yugoslavia 29 December 1951 Belgrade [36]
Order of Military Merit with Great Star Yugoslavia Yugoslavia 29 December 1951 Belgrade [36]
Order of Courage Yugoslavia Yugoslavia 15 August 1943 Jajce [36]
Commemorative Medal of the Yugoslav Partisans - 1941 Yugoslavia Yugoslavia 14 September 1944 Vis [36]
"30 Years of Victory over Fascism" Medal Yugoslavia Yugoslavia 9 May 1975 Belgrade [36]
"10 Years of Yugoslav Army" Medal Yugoslavia Yugoslavia 22 December 1951 Belgrade [36]
"20 Years of Yugoslav Army" Medal Yugoslavia Yugoslavia 22 December 1961 Belgrade [36]
"30 Years of Yugoslav Army" Medal Yugoslavia Yugoslavia 22 December 1971 Belgrade [36]

International awards and decorationsEdit

Template:Expand list

Award or decoration Country Date Place Remarks Ref
Order of the Grand Star for Exceptional Merit of the Republic of Austria with Sash Austria Austria 9. February 1965 Vienna Highest Austrian order of merit. [36]
Grand Collar of the Order of Almara with Sash Afghanistan Afghanistan 1 November 1960 Belgrade Highest decoration of the Kingdom of Afghanistan. [36]
Grand Cross of the Order of Léopold with Sash Belgium Belgium 6 October 1970 Brussels Highest military order of Belgium. [36]
Grand Collar of the Order of the Andean Eagle Bolivia Bolivia 29 September 1963 Cochabamba Bolivian state order. [36]
Grand Collar of the National Order of the Southern Cross Brazil Brazil 19 September 1963 Brasília Brazil's highest order of merit. [36]
Order of People's Liberty 1st Class Bulgaria Bulgaria 25 November 1947 Sofia Awarded for the participation in the revolutionary struggle of the Bulgarian people. [36]
Order of the 9 September 1944 1st Class with Swords Bulgaria Bulgaria 25 November 1947 Sofia Awarded to Bulgarian and foreign citizens who took part in the armed insurrection of September 9, 1944. [36]
Order of Georgi Dimitrov Bulgaria Bulgaria 22 September 1965 Sofia Awarded for exceptional merit. Came with the title of "People's Hero of Bulgaria". [36]
Grand Collar of the Order of Thiri Thudhamma Burma Burma 6 January 1955 Rangoon The highest Burmese commendation (at the time). [36]
Grand Cross of the Royal Order of Cambodia 1st Class with Sash Cambodia Cambodia 20 July 1956 Brioni Cambodian chivalric order, originally established by France (still in use). [36]
Grand Collar of National Independence Cambodia Cambodia 17 January 1968 Phnom Penh Cambodian order. [36]
Grand Cross of the Order of Merit for Cameroon with Sash Cameroon Cameroon 21 June 1967 Brijuni Highest order of merit of the Republic of Cameroon. [36]
Grand Collar of the Order of Merit of Republic of Chile Chile Chile 24 September 1963 Santiago Chilean order of merit. [36]
Order of Merit of the Congo with Sash Congo Congo 10 September 1975 Belgrade Highest order of merit in the Congo. [36]
Order of the White Lion I. Class with Collar Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakia 22 March 1946 Prague The highest order of Czechoslovakia. [36]
Military Order of the White Lion "For Victory" I. Class Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakia 22 March 1946 Prague Highest military order of Czechoslovakia. [36]
Knight's Order of the Elephant with Sash Denmark Denmark 29 October 1974 Copenhagen Highest order of Denmark. [37]
Grand Collar of the Order of the Nile Egypt Egypt 28 December 1955 Cairo Egypt's highest state honor. [36]
Grand Collar of the Order of the Queen of Sheba with Sash Ethiopia Ethiopia 21 July 1954 Belgrade Ethiopian imperial order. [36]
War Medal of Saint George with Victory Leaves Ethiopia Ethiopia 21 July 1954 Belgrade Military medal of Ethiopia. [36]
Medal for Defence of the Country with Five Palm Leaves Ethiopia Ethiopia 21 July 1954 Belgrade Military medal of Ethiopia. [36]
Commander Grand Cross, with Collar, of the Order of the White Rose of Finland Finland Finland 6 May 1963 Belgrade One of three highest state orders of Finland, established in 1919 by Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim. [36]
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath with Collar and Sash United Kingdom United Kingdom 17 October 1972 Belgrade British order of chivalry, awarded in Belgrade by Queen Elizabeth II. [36]
Grand Cross of the Order of the Legion of Honour 1st Class with Sash France France 7 May 1956 Paris Highest decoration of France, awarded to Tito for extraordinary contributions in the struggle for peace. [36]
Médaille militaire France France 7 May 1956 Paris Also received by Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Dwight D. Eisenhower. [38]
Special class of the Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of Germany with Sash Federal Republic of Germany FR Germany 24 June 1974 Bonn Highest possible class of the only general state decoration of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany). [36]
Order of Karl Marx
(Awarded two times)
German Democratic Republic GDR 12 November 1974,
12 January 1977
Berlin,
Belgrade
The most important order in the German Democratic Republic, GDR (East Germany). [36]
Grand Cross of the Order of the Redeemer with Sash Greece Greece 2 June 1954 Athens Highest decoration of Greece. [36]
Grand Cross with Star of the Order of the Hungarian Republic with Sash Hungary Hungary 7 December 1947 Budapest Hungarian national order. [36]
Order of Merit of the People's Republic of Hungary 1st Class Hungary Hungary 7 December 1947 Budapest Highest Hungarian order of merit. [36]
Order of the Flag of People's Republic of Hungary 1st Class with Brilliants Hungary Hungary 14 September 1964 Budapest Hungarian national order. [36]
Order of Shakti Indonesia Indonesia 28 December 1958 Jakarta Indonesian order, awarded for extraordinary bravery. [36]
Guerilla Medal Indonesia Indonesia 28 December 1958 Jakarta Indonesian medal, crafted from the first exploded shell of the Indonesian National Revolution. [36]
Grand Collar of the Order of Pahlavi with Sash Iran Iran 3 June 1966 Baghdad Iranian order. [36]
Commemorative Order "2,500 years of the Iranian Empire" Iran Iran 14 October 1971 Persepolis Iranian order, commemorating 2,500 years of the Iranian Empire. [36]
Order "Al Rafidain" 1st Class with Sash Iraq Iraq 14 August 1967 Belgrade Contemporary Iraqi state order. [36]
Military Order "Al Rafidain" 1st Class with Sash Iraq Iraq 7 February 1979 Baghdad Contemporary Iraqi military order. [36]
Order of the Grand Cross of Merit of the Republic with Collar and Sash
(Cavaliere di Gran Croce Decorato di Gran Cordone Ordine al Merito della Repubblica Italiana)
Italy Italy 2 October 1969 Belgrade Highest existing Italian order of merit, awarded to Josip Broz Tito in Belgrade. [36]
Grand Cordon of the Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum Japan Japan 8 April 1968 Tokyo Highest Japanese decoration for living persons. [36]
Order of the Knight of the Golden Lion of the House of Nassau with Sash Luxembourg Luxembourg 9 October 1970 Luxembourg Chivalric Order of Luxembourg [36]
Collar of the Order of the Azetc Eagle Mexico Mexico 30 March 1963 Belgrade Highest decoration awarded to foreigners in Mexico. [36]
Order of Suha Bator Mongolia Mongolia 20 April 1968 Ulan Bator A national order of Mongolia. [36]
Grand Collar of the Order of Mehamedi Morocco Morocco l April 1961 Rabat Moroccan order. [36]
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Netherlands Lion Netherlands Netherlands 20 October 1970 Amsterdam Order of the Netherlands which was first created by the first King of the Netherlands, King William I. [36]
Grand Cross with Collar of St. Olav Norway Norway 13 May 1965 Oslo Highest Norwegian order of chivalry, founded in 1066. [36]
Grand Collar of the Order of Manuel Amador Guerrero Panama Panama 15 March 1976 Panama The highest honour of Panama. [36]
Grand Cross of the Order of Polonia Restituta with Sash
(Awarded two times)
Poland Poland 25 June 1964,
4 May 1973
Warsaw,
Brdo Castle
One of Poland's highest orders. [36]
Grand Cross of the Order Virtuti Militari with Star Poland Poland 16 March 1946 Warsaw Poland's highest military decoration for courage in the face of the enemy. [36]
Medal Zwycięstwa i Wolności 1945 Poland Poland 16 March 1946 Warsaw 670,000 of the medals were awarded from 1958 to 1992. [36]
Krzyż Partyzancki Poland Poland 16 March 1946 Warsaw 55,000 of the medals were awarded. [36]
Grand Collar of the Order of Saint James of the Sword with Sash Portugal Portugal 23 October 1975 Belgrade Portuguese order of chivalry, founded in 1171. [36]
Grand Collar of the Order of Prince Henry with Sash Portugal Portugal 17 October 1977 Lisbon Portuguese National Order of Knighthood. [36]
Order of the Victory of Socialism Romania Romania 16 May 1972 Drobeta-Turnu Severin Highest Romanian decoration, awarded with the title of "People's Hero of Romania". [36]
Grand Cross of the Order for Civil and Military Merit of San Marino with Sash San Marino San Marino 25 September 1967 Belgrade Highest Order of San Marino. [36]
Order of Victory Soviet Union Soviet Union 9 September 1945 Belgrade Highest military decoration of the Soviet Union, one of only 5 foreigners to receive it.
Last person to receive the Order (without having it revoked).
[39]
Order of Suvorov 1st Class Soviet Union Soviet Union September 1944 Moscow Awarded to military personnel for exceptional duty in combat operations, also received by Marshal Georgi K. Zhukov. [36]
Order of Lenin Soviet Union Soviet Union 5 June 1972 Moscow Highest National Order of the Soviet Union. [36]
Order of the October Revolution Soviet Union Soviet Union 16 August 1977 Moscow Second highest National Order of the Soviet Union. [36]
  1. Ian Bremmer, The J Curve: A New Way To Understand Why Nations Rise and Fall, Page 175
  2. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named autogenerated3
  3. 3.0 3.1 Neill Barnett. Tito. Haus Publishing, London (2006) ISBN 1-904950-31-0, page 36-9
  4. Excommunicate's Interview - Time Magazine, 21 October 1946.
  5. [1]
  6. Air victories of Yugoslav Air Force
  7. No Words Left? 22 August 1949.
  8. Come Back, Little Tito 6 June 1955.
  9. Discrimination in a Tomb 18 June 1956.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Socialism of Sorts 10 June 1966.
  11. Unmeritorious Pardon 16 December 1966.
  12. Beyond Dictatorship 20 January 1967.
  13. Still a Fever 25 August 1967.
  14. Back to the Business of Reform 16 August 1968.
  15. Yugoslavia: Tito's Daring Experiment 9 August 1971.
  16. Template:Cite web
  17. photo: Policija između dviju grupa prosvjednika
  18. Avis za početnike, Danas
  19. Template:Cite web
  20. J. Samuel Valenzuela and Arturo Valenzuela (eds.), Military Rule in Chile: Dictatorship and Oppositions, p. 316
  21. Josip Broz Tito Statement on the Death of the President of Yugoslavia 4 May 1980.
  22. Several authors; "Josip Broz Tito - Ilustrirani življenjepis", page 166
  23. Jasper Ridley, Tito: A Biography, page 19
  24. http://actualidad.terra.es/cultura/articulo/hallan-goya-tito-milosevic-belgrado-2920598.htm
  25. Status of the Museum of the History of Yugoslavia, B92
  26. U Kumrovcu Srušen I Oštećen Spomenik Josipu Brozu Titu – Nacional
  27. Barnett N., Tito, ibid, p39
  28. Barnett N., Tito, ibid, p44
  29. Titova udovica daleko od očiju javnosti, Blic, December 28, 2008
  30. Interview with Lordan Zafranovic
  31. Stvaranje Titove Jugoslavije. page 436, ISBN 86-385-0091-2
  32. Barnett N, Tito, ibid p138
  33. http://books.google.com/books?id=C6SaAAAAIAAJ&q=Tito+spoke++languages&dq=Tito+spoke++languages&client=firefox-a&pgis=1
  34. http://books.google.com/books?id=TjOsyebOTS8C&pg=PA155&dq=Tito+spoke++languages&client=firefox-a#PPA155,M1
  35. Male Novine, "Titovim Stazama Revolucije", Special edition, 1977, page 96
  36. 36.00 36.01 36.02 36.03 36.04 36.05 36.06 36.07 36.08 36.09 36.10 36.11 36.12 36.13 36.14 36.15 36.16 36.17 36.18 36.19 36.20 36.21 36.22 36.23 36.24 36.25 36.26 36.27 36.28 36.29 36.30 36.31 36.32 36.33 36.34 36.35 36.36 36.37 36.38 36.39 36.40 36.41 36.42 36.43 36.44 36.45 36.46 36.47 36.48 36.49 36.50 36.51 36.52 36.53 36.54 36.55 36.56 36.57 36.58 36.59 36.60 36.61 36.62 36.63 36.64 36.65 36.66 36.67 36.68 36.69 36.70 36.71 36.72 36.73 Bilo je časno živjeti s Titom. RO Mladost, RO Prosvjeta, Zagreb, February 1981. (pg. 102)
  37. Recipients of Order of the Elephant
  38. Recipients of Médaille militaire
  39. List of order of Victory recipients

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